Sunday, 17 April 2016

Identity of Hallyu fans in online space

Since the emergence of the Internet, it has been joined by many host of technologies that extend “both fandom and the prospects of engaging in fan activities into multiple pockets of everyday life. Blackberries, iPods, PSPs, laptops, PDAs, and cell phones all bring fan objects out with their users to the subway, the street and even the classroom” (Gray, Sandvoss & Harrington, 2007, p. 7). These changing communication technologies reflect the increasing of fan consumption in the structure of daily life. For instance, Gooch (2008) said the interactivity between fans has increase the creation of forums and blogs. Fans are able to participate more in multiple fandoms in online sites. These websites created more fan discussions that can be easily access to everyone. However, the problem arise when fans start to compete their knowledge to prove their existence within the fan communities and to be ‘authentic’ as much as possible.
Therefore, fandoms can no longer seen as utopian as asserted by Bacon-Smith (1992) that “the media fan community has no established hierarchy” (p. 41) but should be viewed as “a social hierarchy where fans share a common interest while also competing over fan knowledge, access to the object of fandom and status” (Hills, 2002, p. 46). Similarly, Pullen (2000) argued that the Internet has not eradicated fan conflicts over differing interpretations of their texts and “the Internet should not be assumed to have created utopian fan communities” and the Internet has not created fan communities as “a single, unified fan position or practice” (p. 60).
      The discourse of power and hierarchy among fans as Tulloch (1995) noted that most senior and powerful fans ‘have discursive power’ to establish and control over the right reading. They also control the ways of fellow fans behave and react on certain texts so that the authenticity and norms of fandom remain stable. The ways in which fans can enforce a specific text has become more apparent in the Internet fandom, becomes almost similar to “subculture studied by the Birmingham school such as teddy boys, mods and rockers, bikers, skinheads, soccer hooligans and rastas” (Mitchell, 2003, p. 2) to perceived their identity.

        We used two online sites to explain this phenomena; and Both are Korean-English entertainment news sites which fans can update the news from there. They are public sites where all people can access. We observed the conversations of fans in comment sections and picked random news updated from April 6 to April 16 2016 ***.

To recognize either the articles gave good or bad impressions to the readers, we used the emoticon sign to know how fans felt about the article posted.

In the comment sections, we can saw that fans are interacted with each other whenever the news came out. The comments were either from fans or haters. Fans are indicated as someone who knows a lot of that artists and put meaningful comments in that sites. They wrote supportive comments and gave right information if other fans have vague arguments. Fans who know a lot of knowledge also shared that knowledge in the comment section. Usually, fans are dominated and involved in the discussions, not the owner sites. They are defended their artists with the truth stories and right explanations. Fans are also shared their pleasurable onto the news, so-called ‘fangirling’. Basically, fans are maintained the harmony in that comment section.


  Haters are also fans but probably she or he did not like that artists, thus put pointless comments to that sites which other fans found irritated. However, the term of ‘haters’ does not necessarily refer to those who gave negative feedback because there must be reasons for them to write. In articles, fans found irritated when the site kept posted about AOA’s Seolhyun and her beauty while fans claimed that Seolhyun is not too gorgeous as publicize. Here, it shows two situations; real haters who did not like the articles posted thus give irritated comments, and haters who found the article posted are lame because of the bias side from the sites.

As Giddens (1991) highlighted that identities are dynamics, changing and evolving. In this case, fans are constantly create and revise their identities in online space through their interest - on who are they like and hate. In online community, as Giddens (1991) said “we are, not what we are, but what we make of ourselves … what the individual becomes is dependent on the reconstructive endeavours in which she or he engages” (p. 75). Fans have options to determine their favourable and pleasurable based on what they consume in text, especially in flexible online medium which fans can freely create their identities either as a fan or hater.
We wish that online sites especially and to publicize more Korean entertainment news and give more natural side because fans have the rights to know the truth of the news. Manse!

References (2016). Retrieved from
Bacon-Smith, C. (1992). Enterprising women: Television fandom and the creation of popular myth.
       Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press
Giddens, A. (1991). Modernity and self-identity: Self and society in the late modern age.
       California: Stanford University Press
Gooch, B. (2008). The communication of fan culture: The impact of new media in science fiction
Gray, J., Sandvoss, C., & Harrington, C. L. (2007). Introduction: Why study fans?. In J. Gray,
       C. Sandvoss, & C. L. Harrington (Eds.), Fandom: Identities and Communities In A Mediated
       World (pp. 1-16). New York: New York University Press
Hills, M. (2002). Fan cultures. Florence, USA: Routledge (2016). Retrieved from
Mitchell, T. (2003). Australia Hip-hop as a subculture. Youth Studies Australia, 22(2), 1-13
Pullen, K. (2000). I Creating online fan communities. London: Arnold Publishers
Tulloch, J. (1995). We’re only a speck in the ocean: The fans as powerless elite. In J. Tulloch &
H. Jenkins (Eds.), Science Fiction Audiences: Watching Doctor Who and Star Trek (pp. 143-172).
London: Routledge

Mobile Media and Everyday Life

Changes in pattern of media use
1.                  Blurring the lines between work, leisure and family commitment
Talking about mobile media, first of all we will imagine thing that so called ‘smartphone’. But not many of us realise the positive and negative side of mobile media on our daily life. What we know it simplify our daily life. Let not go too far; just now we all can access this blog through our mobile phone. In the past we only can connect to internet through computer, laptop, and notebook but now with smartphone there is nothing to surprise about. That just the physically change of media revolution that we can see. Now stay with me to look beyond the physical changes. Either we realize it or not, mobile media really have the changes in term of uses pattern.
Firstly, mobile media blurring the lines between works, leisure and family commitments. According to Linke (2013) studies have most illuminatingly shown how the mobile phone has made a difference in people’s arrangement of mobility and timetables through mobile everyday communication.  Let reflect ourselves, how do we use mobile phone on ours daily life? ‘Works, leisure and family commitments’. This three separated thing that seen as impossible to focusing at the same time. But with the mobile media we can’t really see the lines between these three things. As workers, it will simplify our ease our communication. For example the application so called facebook, wechat, whatapps and instagram. Let take into example person who run online business through the social network. Yes, it about work and at the same time it about entertainment and there also family member on our friend list. It not only kills two bird with one stone but kill three bird with one stone. Amazing right?  How can we know either that person working, have leisure time or communicating with their family?

2.                  Emergence of various application
According to Danova (2013), the media use categories that have seen the most dramatic transition to mobile so far are social networking, mobile video, local search, and, of course gaming. This usage of mobile media seem gradually change because of the various application that available to download on our phone. In the past, phone known for calling, then can send and receive message. But since the increasing on technology innovation, phone start to have android that able us to use all sort of application.

(Google Image)
Mobile media not only about communicating but also became one of basic need on our life. Let me ask simple question; anyone willing to look into manual maps even you have smartphone that have so called Google Maps, Wage and Navigation? Who else want to carry Nokia 3310 if you affordable to buy ‘slim phone’?

Discuss and analyse how one issue/event that is facilitated and implicated by mobile media. What are the advantages and disadvantages of mobile media in that issue/event?
Mobile media being part and parcel of the global society always has its unique role. Either it facilitates or destructs human life has always been the concern of many including those who debated within the realm of academe. Personally, I would discuss on an issue in which I felt that mobile media possess its influence. Apparently, I feel that mobile media have fostered gamming by blurring the line between work and leisure time and even work and study time. However, does this double task means that we are progressing towards positivity. If you ask me, I would definitely say it is in a position which is par. The good thing about this is it has certainly compressed the notion of time and space together. People can now save their time and involve in gamming whenever they have time. For example, during lunch break or even while waiting for the lecturers to enter the class.
However, the underside of this mobile media and the facilitation of gamming is that is has certainly restricted face-to-face communication, reduces physical activities and loosens the bond between their fellow people. I have observed a friend of mine who were once the most talkative person. However, after engaging in online gaming namely Candy Crush, she rarely enters the class or even if she enter the class she rarely sit beside us. She rather listens to the lecture while playing her game than communicating with us. Mobile media causes alienation from their own society, alienation from the people around you. However, I do not deny the fact that it has eased the burden of mankind in many ways.

(Google Image)
Linke, C., (2013). Mobile media and communication in everyday life: Milestones and challenges. Mobile Media & Communication 1(1) 32–37. Sage

Danova, T., (2013). Here Are Some Of The Biggest Winners In The Mobile Media Revolution. Business Insider. Retrieved from

Google image

Google image

Tuesday, 12 April 2016

Mainstream News vs Blogosphere

Journalist vs Creative writer!

Everyone can write! Yes, that is true, but to be a creative writer is not easy. Some might say that ‘it is something to be born with’ and some may think that it needs abundance of practice! However, it is never easy to write and be sexy on your writing skill. Like, here, we are struggling to make our blog attractive enough for you guys to enjoy our topic this week. Please do!! And…. Our goal is to enlighten people about journalist and creative writing! To be a journalist, you first have to be a creative writer, or else, you never able to ‘sell’ your stories. Wait!! What is journalist/journalism? Who are they? How journalist is different from a creative writer? What make a journalist as journalist? These are some possible question that will rise when we talk about writing and journalist.

Diagram 1.0: Journalist plays a huge role in delivering news to the people.
For your information, a journalist is the ‘VIP’ (very important) in our life because they provide us with abundance of current information and new knowledge. A journalist can be defined as someone who collects, write, or distribute news or other current information and their work is called journalism (Online Dictionary, 2015). The rise of journalism in the 18th and 19th centuries was a signalled to the rise of democratic social and political in Europe and North America (Siapera, 2012). Historically, journalism was practiced mainly by educated middle and upper-middle class men, who sought to publish their rational-critical reflections with the intention to educate readers. The concept of journalism is still remain the same to date, which it focus on providing continues information for the people. However, the medium to deliver the message has varied. Yesterday, yes, yesterday, is a history, thanks to the advancement of technology, we can now enjoy different types of information, not only from the mainstream sides.
Diagram 2.0 : Yet with the arrival of technology, everyone seems to able to deliver their thoughts in the World
Wide Web.
Thus, anyone who collects, write or distribute news or any current information can now be a JOURNALIST. How? We have been talking before about Chocolate Moist Cake (aka Computer Mediated Communication [CMC]) before! Everything could be reach by the internet. With the improvement of the technology, there is no ‘No’ to any information. For so many years, people will only have the access to read only on the ‘mainstream’ news, now we can get the alternative news from the internet, mainly. We are all aware that mainstream media is the mass media that influences a large number of people and both reflects and shapes prevailing currents of thought (Online Dictionary, 2016). Yes! TV3, RTM, NTV7 are some of the mainstream media that is available in Malaysia. The parameters of freedom and space found in the mainstream media are directly or indirectly prescribed by the government and thus has resulted turnover of Malaysian reader towards alternative  media for new sources of information, news and views (Ali, Faridah, Muhd Yusuf, Normah & Maizatul Haizan, 2011). 

Alternative media are media that differs from established or dominant types of media in term of their content, how they are produced or how they are distributed (Online Dictionary, 2016). The alternative media could be the blogosphere where many people share their ideas about the current issues and their thoughts of some event. The blogosphere is evolving and being transformed in the process where they mainly focused on politics and public affairs which it has changed the way information becomes front page news (Alex Jones in MacKinnon, 2005). The way they present the idea of the similar issues also differs from the mainstream. How? As we mentioned earlier, mainstreams media are dominated by the government agencies, compare to blogsphere, who are generally people that did not tied to government agency and they are relatively free from the “government square”.

Diagram 3.0 : Media Prima's corporate structure.
The arrival of Internet certainly change the way we view the world and even managed to restructure journalism. According to John V, Pavlik in his book “Journalism and New Media”, the contents of journalism started to change and so does the skills that are needed to be one (as we discussed earlier), the structures of news organizations and newsroom and lastly would be the relationship between publics and journalism (Pavlik, 2001). The practice and routine in journalism changes completely, plus with the arrival of new platform such as application Kindle and e-book applications. These platform are not only cheap and are able to reach further than traditional media (newspaper). For instance, newspaper are one sided interaction and once publish there will never be a follow up respond from the writer. Which are rather different in context of new media, there are comment sections provided down below for the further inquiries and suggestions.

Diagram 4.0:  1MDB scandals.

Journalist vs Bloggers: IMDB

The easiest example that we can found in current issues especially in Malaysia is the 1MDB scandalWe won’t be going into pin pointing “who-is-wrong-and-who-is-right” and role of the organisation but rather on how the issue are potray on different light, based on their platform. According to Andy Davidson from ExpatGo, “the 1MDB scandal receives daily coverage in social and mainstream media. Questions and answers fly back and forth, with critics claiming the answers do not adequately address the questions asked, and the government and 1MDB insisting they have adequately responded” (Davidson, 2015). It causes a huge uproar among Malaysians, as it involve a lot of money. It involved big names of the industry including the Prime minister himself, in spending the money. We follow closely 4 blogs that posted an entry related to the scandal which are posted below:

Therefore by analyzing through these blogs, we have come up with few points that can be used to show the difference and both similarities in reporting news, the goods and bad practices in online news,types of coverage and our recommendation for future purposes. 


1) Difference and Similarities

Based on our observation, it is noted that the difference between both newspaper news and blogs, the most obvious would be the usage of language in both platform. Newspaper stressed on the usage of good language while reporting news, by good language is mainly grammar, sequences and continuation of flow from one sentence to another. It implies works experience or perhaps a language teacher as the message are easily delivered. Whereas, bloggers wrote mainly straight from their heart with no filters involve and sugarcoat, perhaps which explain lack of noun provided and flow. Yet, this does not reflect all blogs in general, it is just the one that we listed above. On the context of ideas, blogs are filled with creativity as as I mentioned above, each blog introduced new conspiracy theory based scandal, which we find it quite entertaining, as most of entry in newspaper are synchronize from one publication to another. Which makes this is something refreshing; to hear new ideas apart from the same boring news. On of the reason of the conformity would be most of the news are based from the same source like press conference. 

2) Good and the Bad in online news.

The lack of resources are surely seems to grab our attentions. Most online news are improved version of the print newspaper. It may due to the fact that blogs are where people pour their heart out and response on certain issue. In our cases would be the people disappointment towards the Prime Minister while explaining their own version of the stories. We were not in position to claim what is good and bad for online news as it is best if we leave it as what it was. There are online news websites that simply a collection of all the print newspaper available and put it under the same roof. Based on our discussion, we would put both coverage in par as they both have the merits and demerits. Newspaper would give up the basic information in certain issues, where blog spots would be the platform for people to discuss and both platform are thereby needed to understand further. We would recommend for people to support both platform


Ali, S., Faridah, I., Muhd Yusuf, A., Normah, M., & Maizatul Haizan, M. (2011). The impact       of New Media ontraditional Mainstream mass media. The Innovation Journal, 16(3), 1-7. Retrieved from

Davidson, A. (2015, July 28). Current Issues in Malaysia and How it Affects the Economy. Retrieved from ExpatGo:

Pavlik, J. V. (2001). Journalism and New Media. Columbia: Columbia University Press.

Thursday, 7 April 2016

Consumption and Digital Devices.

Assalamualaikum and hyeeee everyone :)

We're so sorry for not publish any post for a long time due to our hectic,hurricane life. But now, we have back in our normal track. A long pheewwww..hehe.

For our second post, we have to find about online consumption and digital devices among University Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS) students. As we want to learn about the patterns of our online consumption based on our daily basis, we have developed a questionnaire for us to understand and analyze. Basically, we asked (force!hehe) our friends to participate in answering the questionnaire. Thus in the end, we have 26 respondents that include 7 male and 19 female from different faculties.

Based on the responds from the questionnaire, we can concluded that each of us have own smartphones and laptops nowadays. This is because we are living in the age where there are rising of new media and technologies. (tak up-to-date laa kalau x de laptop dengan smartphone kn..?) Therefore, there are rather difficult situations for those who do not own any smartphones and laptops that are importantly in our daily basis especially in doing assignments. 

From the responds, basically they have their first smartphones specifically as early as 12 years old where at that time smartphones are very new technologies that people owned. As for laptops, they owned it as early as 17 years old and above, where most of them just entering universities, and that making them to buy the laptops for their ease. 

Besides that, most of them only have one or two smartphones in their life. There are rarely that own more than 2 smartphones. Besides smartphones and laptops, there are also other new media that they have in their life which are MP3/MP4 for the music. This is because, for them it is easier and better to put their music and songs in MP3/MP4 rather than they put in their smartphones because they do not want their smartphones’ battery die too soon. Besides MP3/MP4, they also have tablets and game consoles for their pleasure. 
Out of 26 students that are participating in answering this questionnaire, there are 10 students (37%) that use their smartphones and laptops in 4 to 5 hours a day. And there are 8 students (18.5%) that use more than 5 hours a day! This showed that smartphones and laptops do have powerful ‘attractions’ for people to use it. Usually, most students use their smartphones and laptops for their social networking and assignments. Other than that, they also use it for surfing online, online games, online shopping and internet banking. From the reasons that are stated above as why they use smartphones and laptops, we can conclude that new media such as smartphones and laptops provide important services for people to use it. Without it, we can say that our life will not ruining as smoothly as we want it to be.

 Can you see how big the difference is???!!!!
New media does changing and improve our life because of so many reasons. It makes our life easier and faster in term of sending, receiving and gaining information. New media also enhancing our life better, where we can connected easily with our family and friends through it. Other way of saying the importance of new media especially smartphones and laptops in our life; where it contain lots of information, we can use it easily and it is less time consuming and it is much better way of communication in today’s world. 

So, less technology less controversy..
Till then guys ;)